Acute gastroenteritis

Acute gastroenteritis is a medical term used to describe a sudden onset of inflammation and irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, commonly known as the stomach and intestines. This condition is often caused by infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites. Acute gastroenteritis is a common condition that leads to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and sometimes fever.


  • Viral Infections: Norovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus are common viruses that can cause gastroenteritis.
  • Bacterial Infections: Various bacteria can be responsible, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Campylobacter, and Shigella.
  • Parasitic Infections: Parasites such as Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium can cause gastroenteritis.
  • Toxins: Toxins produced by bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus, can cause food poisoning and acute gastroenteritis.


  • Diarrhea:Frequent, loose, watery stools.
  • Vomiting: Forceful expulsion of stomach contents.
  • Abdominal Cramps: Pain or discomfort in the stomach area.
  • Fever: Elevated body temperature.
  • Nausea: Feeling of wanting to vomit.
  • Dehydration: Signs include dry mouth, excessive thirst, dark urine, and lethargy.


  • Hand Hygiene: Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water, especially after using the bathroom and before handling food.
  • Food Safety: Practice safe food handling, including proper cooking and storage.
  • Water Safety: Avoid consuming contaminated water, and be cautious while swimming in potentially contaminated water.
  • Personal Hygiene: Avoid close contact with individuals who have gastroenteritis symptoms.
  • Vaccination: Vaccines are available for certain types of viral gastroenteritis, such as rotavirus.