Diabetes mellitus, often referred to simply as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. This can result from insufficient insulin production, ineffective use of insulin, or both.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows cells to absorb glucose from the blood for energy. When the normal insulin-glucose balance is disrupted, it leads to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can have long-term complications.

Common Symptoms of Diabetes:

  • Frequent Urination (Polyuria): Excessive urination, especially at night.
  • Increased Thirst (Polydipsia): Persistent feeling of being thirsty.
  • Unexplained Weight Loss: Despite eating well, there may be unintended weight loss.
  • Increased Hunger (Polyphagia): Persistent hunger, even after eating.
  • Fatigue: Lack of energy and persistent tiredness.
  • Blurred Vision: Changes in vision, often due to changes in fluid levels in the eye.
  • Slow Wound Healing: Cuts and sores take longer to heal.
  • Frequent Infections: Increased susceptibility to infections.


  • Fasting Blood Sugar Test: Measures blood sugar levels after an overnight fast.
  • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT): Measures blood sugar levels after fasting and again two hours after consuming a glucose-rich drink.
  • Hemoglobin A1c Test: Reflects average blood sugar levels over the past two to three months.


  • Healthy Lifestyle: Maintain a healthy diet, engage in regular physical activity, and manage stress.
  • Regular Check-ups: Regular health check-ups to monitor blood sugar levels and assess overall health.
  • Weight Management: Achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
  • Avoid Smoking: Smoking increases the risk of complications in individuals with diabetes.