A hydrocele is a condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the sac surrounding the testicle, known as the tunica vaginalis. This fluid buildup causes swelling in the scrotum, creating a painless, fluid-filled lump. Hydroceles are relatively common and can affect individuals of all ages, including newborns.

Causes and Risk Factors:

  • Congenital Factors: Incomplete closure of the connection between the abdomen and scrotum during fetal development.
  • Injury or Trauma: Swelling can occur in response to injury or inflammation.
  • Infection: Infections of the epididymis or testicle can lead to hydroceles.
  • Tumors: Tumors or cysts in the testicle may cause fluid accumulation.
  • Inguinal Hernia Surgery: Fluid may accumulate after hernia repair surgery.


  • Painless Swelling: The most common symptom is the painless enlargement of one or both testicles.
  • Heaviness or Discomfort: Due to the increased size of the scrotum.
  • Transillumination: When a flashlight is shined through the scrotum, the fluid-filled hydrocele will transmit light.


  • Observation: If the hydrocele is small and asymptomatic, regular monitoring may be sufficient.
  • Aspiration: Provides temporary relief but may need to be repeated if the fluid accumulates again.
  • Surgery: Hydrocelectomy is a more permanent solution. Recovery time varies, and patients are advised to avoid strenuous activities for a period after surgery.