Myocardial infarction or heart attack

A myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart muscle becomes blocked, leading to damage or death of the heart muscle cells. This condition is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention.


  • The most common cause of a heart attack is the formation of a blood clot in a coronary artery. The clot can block blood flow, preventing oxygen and nutrients from reaching the heart muscle.

Risk Factors:

  • Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Atherosclerosis, the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, is a major risk factor.
  • Age: The risk increases with age.
  • Gender: Men are generally at higher risk, though the risk for women increases after menopause.
  • Family History: A history of heart disease in close relatives.
  • Smoking: Tobacco smoke contains substances that can damage blood vessels and contribute to atherosclerosis.
  • Hypertension: High blood pressure increases the workload on the heart.
  • High Cholesterol: Elevated levels of LDL ("bad") cholesterol and low levels of HDL ("good") cholesterol.
  • Diabetes: Diabetes increases the risk of atherosclerosis and contributes to other cardiovascular risk factors.
  • Obesity: Excess body weight is associated with an increased risk of heart disease.
  • Physical Inactivity: Lack of exercise is a risk factor for coronary artery disease.


  • Chest Pain or Discomfort: Often described as pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain in the center of the chest.
  • Pain Radiating to the Arm, Jaw, Back, or Neck: Discomfort may extend beyond the chest to other areas.
  • Shortness of Breath: Difficulty breathing or feeling breathless.
  • Sweating: Cold sweat or clammy skin.
  • Nausea or Vomiting: Some individuals may experience nausea or vomiting.
  • Light-headedness or Dizziness: Feeling faint or dizzy.

If you suspect a heart attack, seek emergency medical attention immediately. Quick response and timely treatment can save lives and prevent long-term complications.